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Sample Case Study Paper

Daniel Said:

HELP!!! I need help using G*Power to calculate a sample size!?

We Answered:

1) No, the alpha value and beta value are not the same/affected by each other (though the default or 0.95 is fine). Alpha, as you probably know, is related to type 1 error. By convention, a p value of less than 0.05 means theres less than a 5% chance of us rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true (e.g. we say there is an effect when there isn't). The beta (or power) is related to type 2 error; accepting the null hypothesis when it is not true. It represents how likely your study is to pick up an effect of a given size if one does exist (e.g. a study with 1,000,000 people is likely to pick up a large effect size if there is one there, so it has a high power/beta value). Generally, if we think a 5% chance of being wrong for a type 1 error, then the same should be true for type 2. Its not uncommon for people to go with a power of 0.80 though.

2) This is asking you for an estimate of the strength of the correlation you're looking for in your experiment/sample. The 'determine' part calculates the correlation coefficient from the effect size
(small ? =0.1, medium ? = 0.3, large ? = 0.5 are the conventions it goes by). If you know of any other studies in the area (particular ones with correlations), you can use that as an estimate, else just make an 'educated' guess (or go for a smallish one to be on the safe side).

3) I *think* the correlation for the null is the expected correlation in the population generally. If you're just testing whether there is a correlation between two things, then you're fine leaving it at 0 (as the null is there being no relationship between the two measures). If you were looking at some kind of manipulation, this may be different (e.g. whether advertising affects the relationship between risk taking and the likelihood of someone taking up smoking. There may already be a relationship between these two things, regardless of advertising, so you would want to take that into account).

4) You don't usually say much about a priori power analysis itself in write ups. Normally you would just say something like "A power analysis calculation, based on a one/two tailed alpha value of ___, a beta value of ___, and an effect size of ___ yielded a recommended sample size of ___".

Hope that helps, let me know if you're still stuck.

Jenny Said:

Need to calculate confidence Intervals, odds ratio, & t values?

We Answered:

see the Pearson's chi square test

Jennie Said:

I need help with my graduation paper about civil engineering lab experiment?

We Answered:

please go to
and give free ASM books
I hope solve your problem !

Lee Said:

I need a good thesis statement! Editing a Paper!!!!?

We Answered:

You don't want to have your first sentence as the thesis statement. 1st sentence should be an introduction. 2nd to 4th sentences providing background info and more details. And then the last sentence of the 1st paragraph giving your thesis statement.

Janet Said:

Do I have half a chance in Hades?

We Answered:

No really good program is going to look twice at your GRE score. For the top programs, the GRE is just a formality. (For programs aspiring to be at the top, there's more diversity - some will care, others won't.) However, no good philosophy grad program - and here I'm talking about the great and the merely good both - will care about your *overall* GPA. They will only care about *how you did in philosophy classes* and, to a lesser extent but still quite important, what your professors say about you in their letters of recommendation. If you have rocking letters, you've got a good shot. If you have a major GPA of 3.8 *and* rocking letters, then you're doing very well indeed. (If, on the other hand, you have a major GPA of 3.1, then you're at a greater disadvantage than you think.) Your undergraduate institution can also matter, though usually it matters less than undergrads at Ivy League institutions think.

However, a 3.4 is an acceptable GPA for any program (though hardly a shoe-in) if you really do send two things:
1. A rocking writing sample, and
2. A rocking personal statement that seems to fit with your abilities and experiences.

In your personal statement, talk about yourself, but also talk clearly about what it is you want to study specifically. For a field like philosophy, it's good if this fits with what you did well in and studied at a high level as an undergraduate. Pretend you had philosophy grades as follows:

B+ Survey in Political Philosophy
B Greek Philosophy from the Pre-Socratics to the Epicureans
A- Formal Logic
A Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
B- Locke and Hobbes
A Plato's Symposium Towards a Philosophy of Love
A Aristotle's Nichomachian Ethics
B+ Philosophy and Social Justice
A- Plato's Republic
B Ethics and the Christian Tradition
A Understanding Words: Referents and Conditionals

Here, it's obvious that you were good at ancient philosophy, especially Greek philosophy. In your personal statement, you should highlight this fact and suggest that you'd like to study this kind of thing (though you might need to have studied a bit of Greek to do so). Or, if you want, you could make a good case for studying Kant or aspects of formal logic in grad school, since you're clearly skilled within the analytical tradition (the Kant, Logic, and Linguistic Philosophy classes suggest this). Whatever your "thing" is, be sure to highlight it on your personal statement. By far, that's your best tool for getting into a top grad program.

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